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Phase Three - Direct Action & Desegregation - 1962

The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) establishes Operation Breadbasket and the Citizenship Education Program (CEP). Operation Breadbasket combines direct action and negotiation techniques to secure jobs for African Americans. CEP instructs adults on such things as voting rights, literacy, and community organizing.

The Southern Regional Council, headquartered in Atlanta, establishes the Voter Education Project, providing assistance to organizations attempting to increase the number of African American voters in southern cities.

Civil rights organizations form the Council of Confederated Organizations (COFO) to prevent conflict over Voter Education Program funds and coordinate their efforts. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Council (SNCC) provides the personnel and most of the resources for COFO's operation.

Mayor Ivan Allen erects a metal barricade at Peyton Road to ensure the continued separation of white and black neighborhoods in southwest Atlanta. It was called the city’s “Berlin Wall” by black citizens. Allen has the barricade dismantled after the black community protests and a judge rules it unconstitutional and orders it to be removed.

By the end of this year Atlanta has more integrated movie theaters than any other Southern city.

June: Ruby Doris Smith from Spelman and seven other plaintiffs filed a federal law suit against Grady Hospital in Atlanta charging that the hospital practiced racial discrimination and segregation. The suit was brought on behalf of Ruby Doris who had applied for admission to the Grady Hospital nursing school. The suit failed.