Atlanta in the Civil Rights Movement, 1940-1970
The strategies and tactics used by African American leaders in Atlanta to galvanize black voting power, gain access to public facilities and institutions, and increase economic opportunities for African Americans offer a valuable perspective on the uniqueness of Atlantas Civil Rights experience during the period 1940 to 1970. The core of that uniqueness resides in the fundamental role that churches, social organizations, businesses, and other institutions of Auburn Avenue, and the colleges and universities of the Atlanta University Center, played in developing black leadership. While African American leaders traditionally have emerged from institutions in their communities, the confluence of the businesses and institutions of Sweet Auburn with the Historically Black Colleges and Universities of the city Atlanta University, Spelman College, Morris Brown College, Clark College, Morehouse College, and the Interdenominational Theological Center created an infrastructure for activism that was unparalleled.
This site explores, in summary, the role of these two factors in shaping Atlantas civil rights history, which can be understood as having gone through four related phases:
It is worth noting at the outset, however, that across this time period the goals of the civil rights movement in Atlanta did not change. There was a consistent and clarion call to educate and register eligible African American voters, a demand for access to public and private opportunities on par with the access afforded Atlantas white community, and there was a call for equal protection under the law.
However, as tactics changed over time, a corresponding change in perspective
occurred: civil rights were increasingly seen as basic human rights applicable to all peoples no matter where they may be.
As noted above, the role of organizations on Auburn Avenue and the role of faculty and, most profoundly, students in the Atlanta University Center were unique features of the citys movement. Despite a period of decline on Auburn Avenue beginning in the 1970s and challenges in the Atlanta University Center at the beginning of the 21st century, these communities continue to serve as incubators for African American leadership.
In 2000, 40 years after participants in the Atlanta student movement issued An Appeal for Human Rights, a second appeal was put forth by former members of the Committee on Appeal for Human Rights (COHAR) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), united with current student leaders in the Atlanta University Center. They called upon Atlanta to confront old problems, such as voter apathy and economic inequalities, and to face the new challenges of the citys increasingly diverse population from high dropout rates in the schools to homelessness to crime in the streets. Their rallying cry is compelling:
In past years, we, as African Americans, have resisted the assaults against our persons, our dignity, our rights, our liberties and our very survival through resolute solidarity among our community groups and institutions. We must do so now again. We must commit our intellect and energies across lines of geography, age, sex, economic and social station in order to secure for all citizens the guarantees of the United States Constitution. (Banks AUC Digest Online)
The civil rights movement in Atlanta does indeed live on.
This story of Atlantas role in the civil rights movement, along with the accompanying timeline and bibliography, were written by Clarissa Myrick-Harris, Ph.D. and Norman Harris, Ph.D. of OneWorld Archives. Readers for this material include Dr. Vicki Crawford of Clark Atlanta University, Dr. Andy Ambrose of the Atlanta History Center, and Brenda Banks of the Georgia Archives. Editorial changes have been made by ARCHE for purposes of length and style.